We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation, while the reactions included are the redox pathways of organic carbon oxidation, re-oxidation of reduced nitrogen, iron and sulfur compounds, pore water acid-base equilibria, and dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon (calcite, aragonite, and Mg-calcite). The coastal zone is divided into four environmental units with different particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes: reefs, banks and bays, carbonate shelves and non-carbonate shelves. Model results are analyzed separately for each environment and then scaled up to the whole coastal ocean. The model-derived estimate for the present-day global coastal benthic DIC efflux is 126 Tmol yr−1, based on a global coastal reactive POC depositional flux of 117 Tmol yr−1. The POC decomposition leads to a~carbonate dissolution from shallow marine sediments of 7 Tmol yr−1 (on the order of 0.1 Pg C yr−1). Assuming complete re-oxidation of aqueous sulfide released from sediments, the effective net flux of alkalinity to the water column is 29 Teq yr−1, primarily from PIC dissolution (46%) and ammonification (33%). Because our POC depositional flux falls in the high range of global values given in the literature, the reported DIC and alkalinity fluxes should be viewed as upper-bound estimates. Increasing coastal seawater DIC to what might be expected in year 2100 due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 increases PIC dissolution by 2.3 Tmol yr−1 and alkalinity efflux by 4.8 Teq yr−1. Our reactive transport modeling approach not only yields global estimates of benthic DIC, alkalinity and nutrient fluxes under variable scenarios of ocean productivity and chemistry, but also provides insights into the underlying processes.
Archive for July 18th, 2012
Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global changePublished 18 July 2012 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biogeochemistry, chemistry, modeling, regional
Tags: Arctic, biogeochemistry, biological response, BRcommunity, field, growth, mesocosms, phytoplankton, zooplankton
The effect of CO2 on carbon fluxes in Arctic plankton communities was investigated during the 2010 EPOCA mesocosm study in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. Nine mesocosms were set up with initial pCO2 levels ranging from 185 to 1420 μatm for 5 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added at the start of the experiment to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton, bacteria, total particulate organic carbon (POC), zooplankton, and settling particles. Polar lipid derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to trace carbon dynamics of phytoplankton and bacteria and allowed distinction of two groups of phytoplankton: phyto I (autotrophs) and phyto II (mixotrophs). Nutrients were added on day 13. A nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus model amended with 13C dynamics was constructed and fitted to the data to quantify uptake rates and carbon fluxes in the plankton community during the phase prior to nutrient addition (phase 1, days 0–12).
During the first 12 days, a phytoplankton bloom developed that was characterized by high growth rates (0.87 days−1) for phyto I and lower growth rates (0.18 days−1) for phyto II. A large part of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton (~31%) was transferred to bacteria, while mesozooplankton grazed only ~6% of the production. After 6 days, the bloom collapsed and part of the organic matter subsequently settled into the sediment traps. The sedimentation losses of detritus in phase 1 were low (0.008 days−1) and overall export was only ~7% of production. Zooplankton grazing and detritus sinking losses prior to nutrient addition were sensitive to CO2: grazing decreased with increasing CO2, while sinking increased.
Phytoplankton production increased again after nutrient addition on day 13. Although phyto II showed initially higher growth rates with increasing CO2 (days 14–22), the overall production of POC after nutrient addition (phase 2, days 14–29) decreased with increasing CO2. Significant sedimentation occurred towards the end of the experiment (after day 24) and much more material settled down in the sediment traps at low CO2.
Influence of temperature, hypercapnia, and development on the relative expression of different hemocyanin isoforms in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalisPublished 18 July 2012 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, laboratory, molecular biology, mollusks, multiple stressors, physiology, warming
The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis expresses several hemocyanin isoforms with potentially different pH optima, indicating their reliance on efficient pH regulation in the blood. Ongoing ocean warming and acidification could influence the oxygen-binding properties of respiratory pigments in ectothermic marine invertebrates. This study examined whether S. officinalis differentially expresses individual hemocyanin isoforms to maintain optimal oxygen transport during development and acclimation to elevated seawater pCO2 and temperature. Using quantitative PCR, we measured relative mRNA expression levels of three different hemocyanin isoforms in several ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings, juveniles, and adults), under different temperatures and elevated seawater pCO2. Our results indicate moderately altered hemocyanin expression in all embryonic stages acclimated to higher pCO2, while hemocyanin expression in hatchlings and juveniles remained unaffected. During the course of development, total hemocyanin expression increased independently of pCO2 or thermal acclimation status. Expression of isoform 3 is reported for the first time in a cephalopod in this study and was found to be generally low but highest in the embryonic stages (0.2% of total expression). Despite variable hemocyanin expression, hemolymph total protein concentrations remained constant in the experimental groups. Our data provide first evidence that ontogeny has a stronger influence on hemocyanin isoform expression than the environmental conditions chosen, and they suggest that hemocyanin protein abundance in response to thermal acclimation is regulated by post-transcriptional/translational rather than by transcriptional modifications.
Sour times: seawater acidification effects on growth, feeding behaviour and acid–base status of Asterias rubens and Carcinus maenasPublished 18 July 2012 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: Baltic Sea, biological response, crustaceans, echinoderms, laboratory, morphology, performance, physiology
The impact of seawater acidification on calcifying organisms varies at the species level. If the impact differs between predator and prey in strength and/or sign, trophic interactions may be altered. In the present study, we investigated the impact of 3 different seawater pCO2 levels (650, 1250 and 3500 µatm) on the acid–base status or the growth of 2 predatory species, the common sea star Asterias rubens and the shore crab Carcinus maenas, and tested whether the quantity or size of prey consumed is affected. We exposed both the predators and their prey, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, over a time span of 10 wk and subsequently performed feeding experiments. Intermediate acidification levels had no significant effect on growth or consumption in either predator species. The highest acidification level reduced feeding and growth rates in sea stars by 56%, while in crabs a 41% decrease in consumption rates of mussels could be demonstrated over the 10 wk experimental period but not in the subsequent shorter feeding assays. Because only a few crabs moulted in the experiment, acidification effects on crab growth could not be investigated. Active extracellular pH compensation by means of bicarbonate accumulation was observed in C. maenas, whereas the coelomic fluid pH in A. rubens remained uncompensated. Acidification did not provoke a measurable shift in prey size preferred by either predator. Mussels exposed to elevated pCO2 were preferred by previously untreated A. rubens but not by C. maenas. The observed effects on species interactions were weak even at the high acidification levels expected in the future in marginal marine habitats such as the Baltic Sea. Our results indicate that when stress effects are similar (and weak) on interacting species, biotic interactions may remain unaffected.